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Information about preschool programs targeting at-risk children versus access for all children

Universal and Targeted

Does It Pay to Invest in Preschool for All? Analyzing Return-on-Investment in Three States


March 2006
Clive R. Belfield

This NIEER working paper summarizes three studies projecting the economic consequences of expanding preschool programs toward universal enrollment in three states - Massachusetts, Ohio and Wisconsin.

Policy Brief – The Universal vs. Targeted Debate: Should the United States Have Preschool for All?


April 2004

The debate over universal vs. targeted preschool programs is explored in this policy brief. Policy recommendations include a gradual move toward voluntary universal preschool programs with federal matching funds used to encourage states to fund high-quality preschool for all.